Author: Chehou OUSSOUMANOU

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New Rules of Marketing and PR

Public diplomacy.

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According to Encyclopedia Britannica, public diplomacy, or people’s diplomacy, is any of various government-sponsored efforts aimed at communicating directly with foreign publics.

Indeed, according to Joseph S. Nye, there are 3 powers in public diplomacy’s

  1. The hard power: Army and Economy, in this approach the target audiences take part by their fear or their interest (fear-based management)
  2. The soft power: Communicate, dialogue, Persuade and convince, in this approach the target audiences take part by their conviction (perception-based management).
  3. The smart power: By combining hard & soft power depending on the circumstances and this will combine effect, by making it superpower and that’s why it’s known as the smart one, in this tactic the target audiences take part by conviction but know that you dialogue because you are kind, also you have his interest and you can be dangerous if necessary. Generally, this approach is using this for a country but also it can be used for profit or not-for-profit organization and even it can start from ourselves

Finally, what do you think of the 3 approaches?  The hard power?  The soft power?  The smart power?   And tell me more about Public Diplomacy…

To read:

  1. Nye Joseph, Is the American Century Over? 2015,
  2. Nye Joseph, The Future of Power 2011,
  3. Nye Joseph, The Powers to Lead, 2008
  4. Nye Joseph, Soft power the means to success in world politics 2004,

Thank you.

The Social CRM

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The Social CRM is using social media services, techniques and technologies to enable organizations to engage with their customers  (SCRM, But, also the CRM software industries like Microsoft, SAP SE,, Sage Group, Splendid CRM, Sugar CRM, Zoho Office Suite and others are integrating their software with social media platforms in order to realize Social CRM activities.

Do you think in this situation that exists a voice of customers (Social CRM) versus a voice of industries (CRM Social)?


Who Is Customer?

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One day I went to our quarter’s supermarket to buy something and when arrived there I have remarked that the seller was unhappy!
– Are you well (said I)?
– Our today’s customers are no longer okay anymore (replied she)!
– Do you mean that we are no good at all (interrogated I)?
– I don’t mean you, I mean the rest of customers (corrected she)!
– So yourself included (specified I)?
– No! … The customers I said (insisted she)!
– Yes, but you are one of them (persisted I)! Because you are buying and consuming every day as well as all those you are calling customers are doing (clarified I)!
– Finally, our selling expert laughed and I did the same … Then both, without adding a word, we were smiling and laughing till I’ve bought what I wanted to buy and after what I went back to home…

Well, my dear sellers,

We are all customers.

The ‘4 Models’ of public relations practice: How far have you evolved?

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That’s great really, and, I think even the fourth model; 2-way symmetrical model is the most important in IT generation since we can use it or adapt it for social customer relationship management (interactive communication to co-create our customer value P.Kotler) and social media marketing…


While preparing to teach my first PR class back in ’85, I happened upon “Managing Public Relations,” by Jim Grunig and Todd Hunt. Though I lost track of my copy long ago (never loan textbooks to students — never), one element of that book influenced how I taught and practiced PR for the past 23 years.

Grunig & Hunt’s “4 Models” of public relations practice went on to became the most talked-about theory in the discipline. The “4 Models” describe distinct approaches to public relations in the context of a 130-year timeline that shows how public relations has evolved. In the process, Grunig & Hunt identify an “ideal” approach to public relations — something they call the 2-way symmetrical model — and place it at the top of the evolutionary pyramid.

For me, the 4 Models became more than a teaching tool. When Grunig & Hunt published their theory, I…

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The 10 Rules You Need to Communicate Effectively

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The 10 Rules You Need to Communicate Effectively… That’s really perfect.

Crisis Communications: Dark Sites 101

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The Dark Web or Deep Web
It’s another part of crisis communication’s plan, the online proactive plan.
When bad news or an emergency suddenly strikes an organization, its website is ordinarily the first place the outside world turns to for information. Given the extreme time pressure inherent in crisis management today, there is just no time to construct a new crisis site from scratch. Instead, a prebuilt dark site can be quickly “turned on” as needed during a crisis management situation.

Ed Lee's Blogging Me Blogging You | @edlee

2008 was a really interesting year for me, professionally, as I was exposed to a tonne of new stuff including online crisis communications. As a result, I wrote the following briefing note for existing and potential clients which I am delighted to share with you. I can in no means call this my own work as with all pieces that go to clients, this was proofed and improved on by another team member – in this case the inimitable Brandy Fleming.

It’s on something that is becoming increasingly important from a communications and crisis preparedness perspective: dark sites.

What is a “dark site”?

A dark site is a pre-developed, non-public Web site that can be published to the live Web in the event of a crisis.

Why develop a dark site?

Online, it is vital to maintain a positive and accurate perception of an organization, especially in the face of…

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